Puppy Development Milestones
by Janice Jones |Last Updated 05-05-2021
Just as in human development, puppy development milestones follows a very predictable sequence of steps, although there is no widespread agreement on the exact ages that these milestones occur. Small dogs grow and develop quickly and often reach maturity before larger breeds.
Puppy development follows a predicable path yet each puppy is unique and each breed is slightly different at the various stages of development. The old rule of each year of a dog’s life is equivalent on seven years for human is not completely accurate.
For most small dogs, including the Shih Tzu, the average life span is approximately 15 --16 years. Small dogs mature early and females often have their first heat by the age of 6 or 7 months. By the age of 12 or 13 months, they are often ready to be bred.
Many changes take place in the first year of a Shih Tzu Puppy's life.
Puppies go from a relatively helpless neonate who cannot see or hear or eliminate by himself to a fully grown, agile, sexually mature adult all in less than 12 months.
When do all of these changes take place?
There are seven recognized stages of puppy development:
Stage One: 0-3 Weeks
Stage Two: 3 to 7 Weeks
Stage Three: 7 to 12 Weeks
Stage Four: 12-17 weeks
Stage Five: 17 to 40 Weeks
Stage Six: 40 to 52 Weeks
Stage Seven: 1 year and older
We will first look at puppy development week by week.
You Tube Puppy Development Series
Visit my YouTube Channel to see a series of Puppy Development Videos of Poppy's puppies beginning at birth.
Puppy Development: One to Two Weeks: Neonatal Stage
One Day Olds
This puppy is a week old, eyes and ears closed. She depends on her mother for warmth, nourishment, and assistance with elimination.
- Touch, Taste, Smell Working, but hearing and sight is not working,
- Recognizes pain
- Sleeps and Eats most of the time
- Cannot regulate their body temperature
- Cannot eliminate on their own--needs mother to initiate urination and defecation
- Dependent on mother for food and elimination
- If canine mother is not available, human interactions must take over providing warmth, food and elimination
- Dependent on breeder for warm environment
- First worming at the end of this stage
Puppy Development Milestones: 2-3 Weeks: Transitional Stage
Two Week Old Shih Tzu Puppy.
- Eyes and Ears open allowing the puppy to see and hear things in their environment
- May be able to eat some solid food by end of this period
- First major learning period occurs
- First few steps
- Still need for warmth
- Beginning of social interactions with litter mates, mother, and humans
Puppy Development Milestones: 3-4 Weeks
Here is a 3 week old Shih Tzu puppy with her eyes open and she is trying to sit.
- Puppies begin to understand that humans are different from dogs
- First introduction to canine manners from mother dog
- More aware of litter mates and Some play fighting may occur among litter mates
- Eats solid foods, but continues to nurse
- Begins to eliminate on own
- Becomes more stable on their four paws
- Regulate their own body temperature
- Prefer to sleep next to or in a heap with litter mates
- Start to drink water
- Introduction to different sounds in the environment, loud noises
- Introduction to different textures, allowed to walk on different flooring
- Second worming at end of this period
- Provide high quality diet and fresh water at all times
Puppy Development Milestones: 4-5 Weeks
- Teeth may begin to emerge
- Very curious at this stage
- Plays with litter-mates
- Puppies take turns in dominant role
- Weaning continues
- Specific routine that includes sleep, relief, eat, play and begin again
- Needs lots of new experiences
- Puppies need some time away from litter mates and mother to prevent separation anxiety
- Need more human socialization
- Need a good high quality puppy food as puppies nurse less and less
Puppy Development Milestones: 5-7 Weeks: Curiosity Stage
At six weeks old, most Shih Tzu puppies are very curious and love to explore their surroundings.
- Weaning begins
- May get first set of shots
- Very curious and may venture away from litter mates and mother for short period of time
- Begins to understand boundaries and impulse control
- Mother will spend more time away from puppies
- Good time for first car ride, first bath
- Not ready to leave litter mates and mother just yet
- Socialization, human interactions, variety of experiences
Puppy Development Milestones: 8-11 Weeks
An eight week old Shih Tzu puppy can manage hard dry kibble well.
- Good coordination, motor skills,
- Most curious phase: Will venture farther and farther away if something catches his interest
- Period of first fear imprinting: Any traumatic event can leave a lifelong impression
- Can eat kibble with ease as many of the baby teeth have erupted
- Need to safeguard the puppy from any traumatic event
- Need to keep puppy safe from venturing too far.
- Second set of shots usually given during this period
- Still not fully vaccinated, so best to weigh socialization needs with health risks
- If puppy goes to new home at this time, training should begin immediately
- Needs to hear his name often
Puppy Development Milestones: 10-16 Weeks
At 16 weeks, a Shih Tzu puppy's coat is about at the length when people start thinking about groomers.
- Puppies go to new home
- Past the fear stage
- No longer soiling in his bed,
- Puppy continues to cut teeth: chews on everything
- Good time for socialization, training to begin: Expose puppy to everything, but be alert to not overdo it; stress can be a factor at this age
- Good time for potty training to begin
- Provide lots of chew toys, opportunities to chew on bones
- By end of period, puppy is ready for puppy classes
Puppy Development Milestones:
6 Months to One Year
- Period begins with beginning of adolescence and ends at sexual maturity
- Very independent : has a mind of his own and likely to show signs of stubbornness
- Second fear stage around 6 months old and may last only a few days or a few weeks
- Girl dogs will go into their first heat period; male dogs get surge of testosterone making them difficult to control--may show up as difficult to manage or disobedient behavior
- Loss of baby teeth and adult teeth come in
- Continuing training and reinforcement of rules
- Neutering or spaying
- Can move on to adult food at end of this period